Linux 101: Demystifying the Linux directory structure

3 months ago 13
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Jack Wallen helps you to recognize what is housed successful each of the directories recovered nether the basal directory successful Linux.

Linux written connected  insubstantial  sitting connected  folder

Image: Hadayeva Sviatlana/Shutterstock

Some caller users person occupation knowing the Linux directory structure, truthful I thought I'd instrumentality a infinitesimal to demystify those unusual folder names. It's not astir arsenic analyzable arsenic you mightiness think. Once you recognize what's what, it each starts to marque sense. 

SEE: C++ programming language: How it became the instauration for everything, and what's adjacent (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

That said, let's instrumentality a look astatine these unusual directories. 

  • First is the basal directory, which is often noted by a guardant slash (/). This houses everything connected your Linux system, truthful it's beauteous important. 
  • Next up is /bin, which contains each indispensable executable binaries that are required for a strategy to relation successful single-user mode. These executables aren't idiosyncratic applications, but indispensable commands that are utilized by the strategy (but tin besides beryllium utilized by users), specified arsenic less and ip
  • Next is /boot, which contains each the files required for the strategy to boot. You'll past find /dev, which contains respective peculiar instrumentality files, specified arsenic /dev/sda, which correspond hardware and virtual devices. 
  • The /etc thrust is wherever each of the system-wide configuration files for applications and services are. 
  • The location directory, which is /home, houses each directories for users. 
  • Library files (which are utilized by indispensable binaries) are recovered successful /lib. 
  • There's besides the /lost+found directory, which stores recovered files that are utilized successful lawsuit of a strategy crash. 
  • The /media directory contains each subdirectories for removable devices (such arsenic outer drives). 
  • The /opt directory is for optional packages and serves arsenic a communal determination for proprietary bundle that doesn't thin to travel the modular record strategy hierarchy. 
  • System and process accusation files are stored successful /proc. 
  • The Root idiosyncratic location directory is isolated from location and is recovered successful /root. 
  • Applications tin store transient files for sockets and process IDs successful the /run directory. 
  • The /sbin directory houses much executable binary files, but these are those that are utilized chiefly for strategy administration. 
  • The Service Data folder (/srv) is simply a determination that houses information for services that are provided by the strategy (such arsenic for the Apache webserver). 
  • All impermanent files are stored successful /tmp and are deleted erstwhile the strategy is restarted. 
  • User binaries (applications utilized lone by the idiosyncratic and not by the system) are stored successful /usr. 
  • And finally, the /var directory houses each adaptable information files, specified arsenic log files (in /var/log) arsenic good arsenic the Apache papers basal (in /var/www/html/). 

And that's the Linux directory operation demystified. Once you recognize however this operation is laid out, Linux becomes considerably easier.

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